Preeclampsia is a serious disorder of human pregnancy occurring after 20 weeks of gestation. It can be divided into subtypes of early onset (<34 weeks of gestation) and late onset (>34 weeks). Presymptomatic detection to identify those at high risk is important for managing this disease. HtrA3, a serine protease with high expression in the developing placenta, exists in long (HtrA3-L) and short (HtrA3-S) isoforms. They are identical, except HtrA3-S lacks the C-terminal PDZ domain. We have previously shown by Western blot analysis that serum HtrA3 levels at the end of the first trimester are significantly higher in women who later develop preeclampsia than in controls. In this study, using highly specific HtrA3 monoclonal antibodies, we established and fully validated two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to detect both HtrA3 isoforms together (HtrA3-T) and HtrA3-L alone in the human serum. We then determined serum HtrA3 at 11 to 13 weeks of gestation in a cohort of singleton pregnancies that proceeded without complications or developed preeclampsia in the third trimester. Compared with controls, those who developed late-onset preeclampsia had significantly higher levels of HtrA3-L, whereas those who developed early-onset preeclampsia had significantly lower ratios of HtrA3-L/HtrA3-T. These data support a potential utility of these HtrA3 ELISAs for early detection of preeclampsia.
- early detection
- preeclampsia subtypes