Using a new series of consistent, consumption-based poverty measures spanning forty years, we assess how much India's poor shared in the country's economic growth, taking into account its urban-rural and output composition. Rural consumption growth reduced poverty in both rural and urban areas. Urban growth brought some benefits to the urban poor, but had no impact on rural poverty. And rural-to-urban population shifts had no significant impact on poverty. Decomposing growth by output sectors, we found that output growth in the primary and tertiary sectors reduced poverty in both urban and rural areas but that secondary sector growth did not reduce poverty in either.