How effective is online pre-service teacher education for inclusion when compared to face-to-face delivery?

Laura Sokal, Umesh Sharma

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Research has recognized that enhancing pre-service teachers’ attitudes, efficacy, and decreasing concerns about inclusive education are essential factors in teacher preparation. However, no research has compared the relative ability of online courses to affect these factors when compared to traditional face-to-face instruction. The current study used pre–post survey methods to measure the effects of the online versus face-to-face formats of teaching inclusive education content to Canadian pre-service teachers. Moreover, we studied the relationships between these variables and the participants’ intentions for inclusive teaching practices. Results showed that while the face-to-face format influenced pre-service teachers’ attitudes and efficacy, it did not foster lower concerns or higher intentions. In contrast, the online course made no significant difference in any of the dependent variables. Given the well-established importance of affective as well as practical variables to effective inclusion, implications and limitations are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Number of pages15
JournalInternational Journal of Inclusive Education
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2022


  • attitudes
  • concerns
  • inclusion
  • intentions
  • online
  • Pre-service teachers

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