How do-not-resuscitate orders are utilized in cancer patients: Timing relative to death and communication-training implications

Tomer T. Levin, Yuelin Li, Joseph S. Weiner, Frank B.S. Lewis, Abraham M.D. Bartell, Jessica B.A. Piercy, David W. Kissane

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66 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objectives: End-of-life communication is crucial because most U.S. hospitals implement cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in the absence of do-not-resuscitate directives (DNRs). Despite this, there is little DNR utilization data to guide the design of communication-training programs. The objective of this study was to determine DNR utilization patterns and whether their use is increasing. Methods: A retrospective database analysis (2000-2005) of DNR data for 206,437 patients, the entire patient population at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC), was performed. Results: The hospital recorded, on average, 4,167 deaths/year. In 2005, 86% of inpatient deaths had a DNR, a 3% increase since 2000 (p < .01). For patients who died outside the institution (e.g., hospice), 52% had a DNR, a 24% increase over 6 years (p < .00001). Adult inpatients signed 53% of DNRs but 34% were signed by surrogates. The median time between signing and death was 0 days, that is, the day of death. Only 5.5% of inpatient deaths had previously signed an outpatient DNR. Here, the median time between signing and death was 30 days. Significance of results: Although DNR directives are commonly utilized and their use has increased significantly over the past 6 years, most cancer patients/surrogates sign the directives on the day of death. The proximity between signing and death may be a marker of delayed end-of-life palliative care and suboptimal doctor - patient communication. These data underscore the importance of communication-training research tailored to improve end-of-life decision making.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)341-348
Number of pages8
JournalPalliative and Supportive Care
Volume6
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 25 Nov 2008
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Communication training
  • Death and dying
  • Do-not-resuscitate orders
  • Palliative care

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