How bacteria and their products provide clues to vaccine and adjuvant development

Gordon Dougan, Carlos Hormaeche

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)


Evidence has emerged that both vertebrates and invertebrates share innate immune pathways involved in the recognition of and the response to micro-organisms, including bacteria and their products. As a consequence, particular degenerate products of bacteria can stimulate and modulate immune responses and influence acquired immunity and, potentially, protection against disease. New knowledge in this field is beginning to explain how vaccine adjuvants work and will facilitate the future development of novel adjuvants and vaccines.

Original languageEnglish
Publication statusPublished - 12 Apr 2006
Externally publishedYes


  • Adjuvant
  • CpG
  • Lipopolysaccharide
  • PAMP
  • TLR pathway

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