Hospital characteristics are associated with clinical outcomes in patients with cardiogenic shock

Jason E. Bloom, Ziad Nehme, Emily Andrew, Luke P. Dawson, Himawan Madhumantha Fernando, Samer Noaman, Michael Stephenson, David Anderson, Vincent Pellegrino, Shelley Cox, Jeffrey L. Lefkovits, William Chan, David M. Kaye, Karen L. Smith, Dion Stub

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6 Citations (Scopus)


ABSTRACT: Background: Regionalized systems of care for the management of cardiogenic shock (CS) are increasingly being utilized. This study aims to assess whether receiving hospital characteristics such as the availability of 24-hour coronary angiography, on-site cardiac surgery, and annual treated CS volume influence outcomes in patients transferred by emergency medical services (EMS) to hospital with CS. Methods: This population-based cohort study included consecutive adult patients with CS who were transferred to hospital by EMS between January 1, 2015 and June 30, 2019 in Victoria, Australia. Data were obtained from individually linked ambulance, hospital, and state death index data sets. The primary outcome assessed was 30-day mortality stratified by the availability of 24-hour coronary angiography (cardiac center) at the receiving hospital. Results: A total of 3,217 patients were transferred to hospital with CS. The population had an average age of 67.9 +/- 16.1 years, and 1,289 (40.1%) were female. EMS transfer to a cardiac center was associated with significantly reduced rates of 30-day mortality (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.64-0.95), compared with noncardiac centers. Compared with the lowest annual CS volume quartile (<18 cases per year), hospitals in the highest volume quartile (>55 cases per year) had reduced risk of 30-day mortality (aOR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.56-0.91). A stepwise reduction in the adjusted probability of 30-day mortality was observed in patients transferred by EMS to trauma level 1 centers (34.6%), compared with cardiothoracic surgical centers (39.0%), noncardiac surgical metropolitan (44.9%), and rural (51.3%) cardiac centers, all P < 0.05. Conclusion: Receiving hospital characteristics are associated with survival outcomes in patients with CS. These finding have important implications for establishing regionalized systems of care for patients with CS who are transferred to hospital by EMS.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)204-210
Number of pages7
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2022

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