FSH and testosterone (T) secretion are essential for the successful completion of spermatogenesis. Because there are no receptors for FSH or testosterone on germ cells, there are intermediate steps in this action, the nature of which are unknown. However, as the Sertoli cell contains receptors for both FSH and T, it is likely that these hormones exert their influence on germ cells by modulating Sertoli cell function. Both FSH and T exert synergistic actions on germ cells, but T has a specific action on the later stages of spermatid maturation. FSH, by its ability to stimulate Sertoli cell mitosis during testicular development, can influence the spermatogenic capacity of the adult testis.