Abnormal trophoblast function is associated with human fetal growth restriction (FGR). Targeted disruption of homeobox gene transforming growth beta-induced factor (TGIF-1) results in placental dysfunction in the mouse. The role of human TGIF-1 in placental cell function is unknown. The aims of this study were to determine the expression of TGIF-1 in human idiopathic FGR-affected placentae compared with gestation-matched controls (GMC), to elucidate the functional role of TGIF-1 in trophoblasts and to identify its downstream targets. Real-time PCR and immunoblotting revealed that TGIF-1 mRNA and protein expression was significantly increased in FGR-affected placentae compared with GMC (n = 25 in each group P <0.05). Immunoreactive TGIF-1 was localized to the villous cytotrophoblasts, syncytiotrophoblast, microvascular endothelial cells and in scattered stromal cells in both FGR and GMC. TGIF-1 inactivation in BeWo cells using two independent siRNA resulted in significantly decreased mRNA and protein of trophoblast differentiation markers, human chorionic gonadotrophin (CGB/hCG), syncytin and 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/3beta-honest significant difference expression. Our data demonstrate that homeobox gene TGIF-1 is a potential up-stream regulator of trophoblast differentiation and the altered TGIF-1 expression may contribute to aberrant villous trophoblast differentiation in FGR.
Pathirage, N. A., Cocquebert, M., Sadovsky, Y., Abumaree, M., Manuelpillai, U. C., Borg, A., ... Murthi, P.
(2013). Homeobox gene transforming growth factor beta-induced factor-1 (TGIF-1) is a regulator of villous trophoblast differentiation and its expression is increased in human idiopathic fetal growth restriction
. Molecular Human Reproduction
(10), 665 - 675. https://doi.org/10.1093/molehr/gat042