Holistic carbon planning for industrial parks: A waste-to-resources process integration approach

Sadiq Muhammad Munir, Zainuddin Abdul Manan, Sharifah Rafidah Wan Alwi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

39 Citations (Scopus)


The recently developed carbon emission Pinch Analysis (CEPA) techniques are not based on the classical Pinch Analysis concepts of carbon transfer, maximum carbon recovery, minimum carbon targets and the design of carbon exchange networks. Although previous process integration applications using the Pinch Analysis have contributed to carbon footprint reductions via energy efficiency improvements, they do not emphasize the waste-to-resources approach involving carbon exchange. This paper presents a new process integration technique for achieving holistic minimum carbon targets. The technique begins with carbon demand planning, which is followed by targeting the maximum possible carbon exchange using modified sources and demand curves. Next, the carbon management hierarchy (CMH) is introduced to systematically guide the carbon reduction process toward holistic minimum carbon targets. Finally, the minimum carbon utilization network is designed using a network allocation diagram. The application of this holistic approach at a refinery site revealed a maximum potential CO 2 reduction of up to 95%.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)74-85
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Cleaner Production
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sept 2012
Externally publishedYes


  • Carbon Management Hierarchy
  • Industrial park
  • Maximum carbon exchange
  • Minimum carbon targets
  • Pinch Analysis
  • Process integration
  • Source and Demand Curves

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