High mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1) is a ubiquitous nuclear protein released by glia and neurons upon inflammasome activation and activates receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 on the target cells. HMGB1/TLR4 axis is a key initiator of neuroinflammation. In recent days, more attention has been paid to HMGB1 due to its contribution in traumatic brain injury (TBI), neuroinflammatory conditions, epileptogenesis, and cognitive impairments and has emerged as a novel target for those conditions. Nevertheless, HMGB1 has not been portrayed as a common prognostic biomarker for these HMGB1 mediated pathologies. The current review discusses the contribution of HMGB1/TLR4/RAGE signaling in several brain injury, neuroinflammation mediated disorders, epileptogenesis and cognitive dysfunctions and in the light of available evidence, argued the possibilities of HMGB1 as a common viable biomarker of the above mentioned neurological dysfunctions. Furthermore, the review also addresses the result of preclinical studies focused on HMGB1 targeted therapy by the HMGB1 antagonist in several ranges of HMGB1 mediated conditions and noted an encouraging result. These findings suggest HMGB1 as a potential candidate to be a common biomarker of TBI, neuroinflammation, epileptogenesis, and cognitive dysfunctions which can be used for early prediction and progression of those neurological diseases. Future study should explore toward the translational implication of HMGB1 which can open the windows of opportunities for the development of innovative therapeutics that could prevent several associated HMGB1 mediated pathologies discussed herein.
- Cognitive dysfunction