HIV drug resistance early warning indicators in cohorts of individuals starting antiretroviral therapy between 2004 and 2009: World health organization global report from 50 countries

Diane E. Bennett, Michael R. Jordan, Silvia Bertagnolio, Steven Y. Hong, Giovanni Ravasi, James H. McMahon, Ahmed Saadani, Karen F. Kelley

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32 Citations (Scopus)


The World Health Organization developed a set of human immunodeficiency virus drug resistance (HIVDR) early warning indicators (EWIs) to assess antiretroviral therapy clinic and program factors associated with HIVDR. EWIs are monitored by abstracting data routinely recorded in clinical records, and the results enable clinics and program managers to identify problems that should be addressed to minimize preventable emergence of HIVDR in clinic populations. As of June 2011, 50 countries monitored EWIs, covering 131 686 patients initiating antiretroviral treatment between 2004 and 2009 at 2107 clinics. HIVDR prevention is associated with patient care (appropriate prescribing and patient monitoring), patient behavior (adherence), and clinic/program management efforts to reduce treatment interruptions (follow up, retention on first-line ART, procurement and supply management of antiretroviral drugs). EWIs measure these factors and the results have been used to optimize patient and population treatment outcomes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)s280-s289
Number of pages10
JournalClinical Infectious Diseases
Issue numbersuppl_4
Publication statusPublished - 15 May 2012
Externally publishedYes


  • hiv
  • drug resistance
  • adult
  • follow-up
  • world health organization
  • treatment outcome
  • anti-retroviral agents
  • drug holiday
  • prescribing behavior
  • patient monitoring
  • prevention

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