The aim of this cross-sectional study was to describe the associations between history of knee injury and knee structure using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This study included two population-based samples: the Tasmanian Older Adult Cohort (TASOAC) study (n = 430; mean age, 63.0 years; range, 51-79 years; 51 female) and the Offspring study (n = 372; mean age, 45.0 years; range, 26-61 years; 57.5 female). In both studies, 1.5 T MRI scans of the right knee were performed to measure bone marrow lesions (BMLs), cartilage volume, tibial bone area, cartilage defects and meniscal pathology. History of knee injury was assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. The association between knee injury and knee structure was determined using multiple linear and log binomial regression models. Nineteen percent of the middle-aged and 12 of the older adults reported a history of knee injury. In middle-aged adults, BML presence (prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.6 (95 CI, 1.2; 2.1)), tibial bone area (difference of means (DM) = +86 (+23, +149)) and meniscal extrusion presence (PR = 2.7 (1.1, 6.8)) were significantly higher in those with knee injury. In older adults, cartilage defect presence (PR = 1.3 (1.0, 1.7)), lateral (DM = -265 (-439, -92)) and total tibial (DM = -325 (-600, -51)) cartilage volume, BML presence (PR = 1.4 (1.0, 1.9)) and tibial bone area (DM = +140 (+19, +260)) were significantly associated with knee injury. Meniscal tears showed no significant associations in either cohorts. The association between knee injury and MRI-assessed structural pathology in the knee joint is moderate and appears to be stronger in older adults compared to middle-aged adults.