Background and Aim: Pediatric Crohn's disease (CD) has been shown to have a high recurrence rate following surgical resection. Risk factors for postoperative CD recurrence in children are not well known. The aim of this study was to identify factors influencing postoperative recurrence in pediatric CD. Methods: Pediatric CD patients who underwent surgical resection with primary anastomosis with a minimum follow up of 2 years were identified from databases at the Royal London Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital. Patients were subdivided into a recurrence group defined by clinical, endoscopic, histological, radiological and/or surgical outcomes, and a nonrecurrence group. Patient demographics, initial gastroscopy and colonoscopy findings, Paris classification, and preoperative and postoperative pharmacotherapy were analyzed. Results: Ninety-six children who underwent an ileal or ileocolonic resection with primary anastomosis were identified. Fifty-seven children had postoperative recurrence. Recurrence was associated with abnormal initial gastroscopy findings (P = 0.0077), ileocolonic disease location (P = 0.03), and perianal disease involvement (P = 0.04). Patients with abnormal initial gastroscopy had higher rates of relapse (hazard ratio 3.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.86–6.30], P = 0.001). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that abnormal diagnostic gastroscopy histology was a significant independent predictor of postoperative recurrence in this cohort (odds ratio 1.33, 95% CI [1.04–1.70], P = 0.024). The most common histological abnormality was non-Helicobacter gastritis, found in 29/46 (63%). Conclusion: This dual-center study has shown that the presence of upper gastrointestinal tract inflammation, especially non-Helicobacter gastritis, at the time of diagnosis, is associated with an increased risk of postoperative recurrence in pediatric CD.
- Crohn's disease
- endoscopy—upper GI
- inflammatory bowel disease: clinical trials
- pediatric disorders