Hip fracture incidence and post-fracture mortality in Victoria, Australia: a state-wide cohort study

Miriam T.Y. Leung, Clara Marquina, Justin P. Turner, Jenni Ilomaki, Tim Tran, J. Simon Bell

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4 Citations (Scopus)


Summary : Hip fractures are a major public health concern. Number of hip fractures cases increased by 20% from 2012 to 2018. Factors associated with post-fracture mortality included men, those who are frail, living in a non-metropolitan region, or residing in a residential aged care facility. Our results are useful for planning healthcare interventions. 

Purpose: Hip fractures are a major public health concern in Australia. Data on hip fracture incidence and mortality are needed to plan and evaluate healthcare interventions. The aims of the study were to investigate (1) the time-trend in absolute number and incidence of first hip fractures, and (2) factors associated with mortality following first hip fractures in Victoria, Australia. 

Methods: A state-wide cohort study of all patients aged ≥ 50 years admitted to a Victorian hospital for first hip fracture between July 2012 and June 2018. Annual age-standardized incidence rates were calculated using population data from Australian Bureau of Statistics. Multivariate negative binomial regression was used to investigate factors associated with post-fracture mortality. 

Results: Overall, 31,578 patients had a first hip fracture, of whom two-thirds were women and 47% were ≥ 85 years old. Absolute annual numbers of first hip fractures increased by 20%. There was no significant change in age- and sex-adjusted incidence. In total, 8% died within 30 days and 25% within 1 year. Factors associated with 30-day mortality included age (≥ 85 years old versus 50–64 years old, mortality rate ratio [MRR] 8.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 5.86–11.33), men (MRR 2.11, 95% CI 1.88–2.37), higher Hospital Frailty Risk Scores (high frailty versus no frailty, MRR 3.46, 95% CI 2.66–4.50), admission from a residential aged care facility (RACF) (MRR 2.28, 95% CI 1.85–2.82), and residing in a non-metropolitan region (MRR 1.22, 95% CI 1.09–1.38). The same factors were associated with 1-year mortality. 

Conclusion: The absolute increase in hip fractures highlights the need for interventions to reduce fracture risk, especially for those at higher risk of post-fracture mortality, including men and those who are frail, living in a non-metropolitan region, or residing in a RACF.

Original languageEnglish
Article number56
Number of pages9
JournalArchives of Osteoporosis
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 29 Apr 2023


  • Frailty
  • Hip fracture
  • Incidence
  • Mortality
  • Risk factors

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