Megakaryocytes (MK) generate platelets. Recently, we and others, have reported MK also regulate hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). Here we show high ploidy large cytoplasmic megakaryocytes (LCM) are critical negative regulators of HSC and critical for platelet formation. Using a mouse knockout model (Pf4-Srsf3Δ/Δ) with normal MK numbers, but essentially devoid of LCM, we demonstrate a pronounced increase in BM HSC concurrent with endogenous mobilization and extramedullary hematopoiesis. Severe thrombocytopenia is observed in animals with diminished LCM, although there is no change in MK ploidy distribution, uncoupling endoreduplication and platelet production. When HSC isolated from a microenvironment essentially devoid of LCM reconstitute hematopoiesis in lethally irradiated mice, the absence of LCM increases HSC in BM, blood and spleen, and the recapitulation of thrombocytopenia. In contrast, following a competitive transplant using minimal numbers of WT HSC together with HSC from a microenvironment with diminished LCM, sufficient WT HSC-generated LCM regulates a normal HSC pool and prevents thrombocytopenia. Importantly, LCM are conserved in humans.