High capacity data hiding schemes for medical images based on difference expansion

Osamah M. Al-Qershi, Bee Ee Khoo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

80 Citations (Scopus)


Since the difference expansion (DE) technique was proposed, many researchers tried to, improve its performance in terms of hiding capacity and visual quality. In this paper, a new scheme, based on DE is proposed in order to increase the hiding capacity for medical images. One of the characteristics of medical images, among the other types of images, is the large smooth regions. Taking advantage of this characteristic, our scheme divides the image into two regions; smooth region and non-smooth region. For the smooth region, a high embedding capacity scheme is applied, while the original DE method is applied to the non-smooth region. Sixteen DICOM images of different modalities were used for testing the proposed schemes. The results showed that the proposed scheme has higher hiding capacity compared to the original schemes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)105-112
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Systems and Software
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2011
Externally publishedYes


  • Data hiding
  • Difference expansion
  • Reversible watermarking

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