High aspect subdiffraction-limit photolithography via a silver superlens

Hong Liu, Bing Wang, Lin Ke, Jie Deng, Chan Choy Chum, Siew Lang Teo, Lu Shen, Stefan A. Maier, Jinghua Teng

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73 Citations (Scopus)


Photolithography is the technology of choice for mass patterning in semiconductor and data storage industries. Superlenses have demonstrated the capability of subdiffraction-limit imaging and been envisioned as a promising technology for potential nanophotolithography. Unfortunately, subdiffraction-limit patterns generated by current superlenses exhibited poor profile depth far below the requirement for photolithography. Here, we report an experimental demonstration of sub-50 nm resolution nanophotolithography via a smooth silver superlens with a high aspect profile of ∼45 nm, as well as grayscale subdiffraction-limit three-dimensional nanopatterning. Theoretical analysis and simulation show that smooth interfaces play a critical role. Superlens-based lithography can be integrated with conventional UV photolithography systems to endow them with the capability of nanophotolithography, which could provide a cost-effective approach for large scale and rapid nanopatterning.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1549-1554
Number of pages6
JournalNano Letters
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 14 Mar 2012
Externally publishedYes


  • aspect ratio
  • nanophotolithography
  • subdiffraction-limit
  • Superlens
  • surface plasmons
  • surface roughness

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