Heterogeneity in influenza seasonality and vaccine effectiveness in Australia, Chile, New Zealand and South Africa: early estimates of the 2019 influenza season

Sheena G. Sullivan, Carmen S. Arriola, Judy Bocacao, Pamela Burgos, Patricia Bustos, Kylie S. Carville, Allen C. Cheng, Monique Bm Chilver, Cheryl Cohen, Yi Mo Deng, Nathalie El Omeiri, Rodrigo A. Fasce, Orienka Hellferscee, Q. Sue Huang, Cecilia Gonzalez, Lauren Jelley, Vivian Ky Leung, Liza Lopez, Johanna M. McAnerney, Andrea McNeillMaria F. Olivares, Heidi Peck, Viviana Sotomayor, Stefano Tempia, Natalia Vergara, Anne von Gottberg, Sibongile Walaza, Timothy Wood

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review


We compared 2019 influenza seasonality and vaccine effectiveness (VE) in four southern hemisphere countries: Australia, Chile, New Zealand and South Africa. Influenza seasons differed in timing, duration, intensity and predominant circulating viruses. VE estimates were also heterogeneous, with all-ages point estimates ranging from 7-70% (I2: 33%) for A(H1N1)pdm09, 4-57% (I2: 49%) for A(H3N2) and 29-66% (I2: 0%) for B. Caution should be applied when attempting to use southern hemisphere data to predict the northern hemisphere influenza season.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1900645
Number of pages7
Issue number45
Publication statusPublished - 7 Nov 2019


  • influenza
  • influenza vaccines
  • sentinel surveillance
  • southern hemisphere
  • vaccine effectiveness

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