Within the Paramyxoviridae family, Henipaviruses are the deadliest human pathogens. Nipah and Hendra viruses comprise the genus Henipavirus, zoonotic pathogens which cause encephalitis and respiratory disease in humans with mortality rates that can exceed 70 . Henipaviruses are the only aramyxoviruses classified as biosafety level 4 pathogens due to their extreme pathogenicity, potential for bioterrorism and lack of available licensed vaccines or therapeutic modalities. Both viruses emerged from their natural reservoir, Asian fruit bats, during the last decade of the 20th century. They caused severe disease and mortality in humans, horses and swine. They also infected a number of other mammalian species. With significant progress in understanding the biology of these deadly pathogens, including the discovery of a Hendra virus vaccine and a potential neutralizing antibody, have we really won the war against the Henipavirus?