Humoral regulation by ligand/receptor interactions is a fundamental feature of vertebrate hematopoiesis. Zebrafish are an established vertebrate animal model of hematopoiesis, sharing with mammals conserved genetic, molecular and cell biological regulatory mechanisms. This comprehensive review considers zebrafish hematopoiesis from the perspective of the hematopoietic growth factors (HGFs), their receptors and their actions. Zebrafish possess multiple HGFs: CSF1 (M-CSF) and CSF3 (G-CSF), kit ligand (KL, SCF), erythropoietin (EPO), thrombopoietin (THPO/TPO), and the interleukins IL6, IL11, and IL34. Some ligands and/or receptor components have been duplicated by various mechanisms including the teleost whole genome duplication, adding complexity to the ligand/receptor interactions possible, but also providing examples of several different outcomes of ligand and receptor subfunctionalization or neofunctionalization. CSF2 (GM-CSF), IL3 and IL5 and their receptors are absent from zebrafish. Overall the humoral regulation of hematopoiesis in zebrafish displays considerable similarity with mammals, which can be applied in biological and disease modelling research.
- colony-stimulating factor
- growth factor