Healthcare costs and resource use associated with negative symptoms of schizophrenia: A systematic literature review

Sharon Weber, James G. Scott, Mary Lou Chatterton

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleResearchpeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)


Objective: To identify and describe the available literature quantifying the economic burden associated with the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Methods: A search of five electronic databases (Medline, PsycINFO, EconLit, CINAHL, EMBASE) and hand searches of bibliographies was conducted to identify all relevant articles written in English and published from date of database inception to January 2021. Search strategies included terms for schizophrenia, negative symptoms, direct and indirect costs and health-care resource utilisation. Quality assessment of included articles was undertaken using a standardised checklist for the evaluation of cost of illness studies. Annual costs were converted to 2022 Australian dollars (A$). Results: Four hundred and thirty-six abstracts were identified for inclusion. Following screening, six unique studies utilizing data from 6293 participants with an average age of 40 were identified to inform the review. Study quality was high for four studies. All studies concluded there was a positive relationship between negative symptoms and costs or resource utilisation. Four studies providing cost data show an increase in direct costs per annum associated with negative symptoms (range A$ 4046 to 171,564). The wide range in costs was attributable to between study differences in patient characteristics and cohorts, included costs, and country of study. Conclusion: Health care costs and resource utilisation are associated with negative symptoms in people with schizophrenia. Heterogeneity prevented calculation of an overall dollar value per point increase in negative symptoms. Future research is warranted to further quantify the relationship between negative symptoms and costs, including health sector and societal.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)251-259
Number of pages9
JournalSchizophrenia Research
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Cost of illness
  • Negative symptoms
  • Resource use
  • Schizophrenia
  • Systematic review

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