BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is becoming a major health challenge worldwide as its aetiology has transferred from predominantly infectious disease to emerging chronic diseases, especially diabetes and hypertension. A rapid health-risk transition driven by economic development is transforming Thailand which is now becoming an ageing country where chronic diseases are a major health burden.
METHODS: This study used the 2005 baseline cross-sectional dataset of 87,143 Thai Cohort Study members to investigate risk factors associated with CKD. Using multivariate logistic regression, we looked into the relationship between CKD and demographic and socioeconomic factors, personal health status and various health-related behaviours.
RESULTS: The prevalence of CKD in men was lower than that in women (2.5% vs 2.7%). In both sexes, CKD is associated with ageing, cigarette smoking and drinking alcohol, having diabetes, high lipids and hypertension. In men, CKD was associated with living in rural areas, having a low income, a higher BMI, short sleeping and having Western fast food. In women, marriage is associated with a higher risk of CKD.
CONCLUSIONS: CKD is strongly associated with ageing, underlying diseases, smoking and drinking. Hypertension, elevated lipids, or diabetes are all risk factors that could be prevented or detected and treated. The Ministry of Public Health should encourage Thai people to consume healthy food, maintain a normal weight, stop smoking and drink alcohol in moderation, all of which will help prevent CKD.
- high lipids