Objectives: To determine how tuberculosis (TB) treatment affects the health-related quality of life (HRQL) of patients with pulmonary TB and to identify the predictors of favourable TB treatment outcomes in Baghdad, Iraq. Methods: The Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy - Tuberculosis (FACIT-TB), a new TBspecific quality of life instrument derived from the internationally recognized FACIT measurement system for the assessment of HRQL, was administered. The mean total and subscale scores of the FACITTB at baseline, end of the intensive phase, and end of TB treatment were compared. Results: After the 2-month intensive phase, physical well-being, functional well-being, and the overall total scores were significantly increased (p < 0.01). Furthermore, at completion of TB treatment, there were significant improvements in the overall HRQL as indicated by the FACIT-TB total score and all subscales, except social and economic well-being and spiritual well-being. In a direct logistic regression model, only the FACIT-TB total score made a statistically significant contribution towards predicting the likelihood that a patient would have a favourable TB treatment outcome. Conclusions: Therapeutic intervention had a positive impact on patient HRQL. We conclude that FACITTB is a reliable tool to monitor HRQL during the course of TB treatment.