Headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry for the determination of volatile compounds from marine salt

Isabel Silva, Silvia Rocha, Manuel Coimbra, Philip J Marriott

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In this work, a methodology to characterise the volatile and semi-volatile compounds from marine salt by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC x GC/TOFMS) was developed. Samples from two saltpans of Aveiro, in Portugal, with diverse locations, obtained over three years (2004, 2005, and 2007) were analysed. A 50/30 mu m divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane SPME fibre was used. The volatiles present in the headspace of the solid salt samples (crystals) were equilibrated overnight at 60 degrees C and extracted for 60 min prior to injection in the GC x GC/TOFMS. 157 compounds, distributed over the chemical groups of hydrocarbons, aldehydes, esters, furans, haloalkanes, ketones, ethers, alcohols, terpenoids, C-13 norisoprenoids, and lactones were detected across the samples. Furans, haloalkanes and ethers were identified for the first time in marine salt. The large number of co-elutions on the first column that were resolved by the GC x GC system revealed the complexity of marine salt volatile composition. The existence of a structured 2D chromatographic behaviour according to volatility, in the first dimension (D-1), and primarily polarity, in the second dimension (D-2) was demonstrated, allowing more reliable identifications. The resolution and sensitivity of GC x GC/TOFMS enabled the separation and identification of a higher number of volatile compounds compared to GC-qMS, allowing a deeper characterisation of this natural product.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5511 - 5521
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Chromatography A
Issue number34
Publication statusPublished - 2010
Externally publishedYes

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