HbA1c, fasting and 2 h plasma glucose in current, ex- and never-smokers: A meta-analysis

Soraya Soulimane, Dominique Simon, William H. Herman, Celine Lange, Crystal M.Y. Lee, Stephen Colagiuri, Jonathan E. Shaw, Paul Z. Zimmet, Dianna Magliano, Sandra R.G. Ferreira, Yanghu Dong, Lei Zhang, Torben Jorgensen, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Viswanathan Mohan, Dirk L. Christensen, Lydia Kaduka, Jacqueline M. Dekker, Giel Nijpels, Coen D.A. StehouwerOlivier Lantieri, Wilfred Y. Fujimoto, Donna L. Leonetti, Marguerite J. McNeely, Knut Borch-Johnsen, Edward J. Boyko, Dorte Vistisen, Beverley Balkau, on behalf of the DETECT-2 Study Group and DESIR Study Group

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

35 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Aims/Hypothesis: The relationships between smoking and glycaemic variables have not been well explored. We compared HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2 h plasma glucose (2H-PG) in current, ex- and never-smokers. Methods: This meta-analysis used individual data from 16,886 men and 18,539 women without known diabetes in 12 DETECT-2 consortium studies and in the French Data from an Epidemiological Study on the Insulin Resistance Syndrome (DESIR) and Telecom studies. Means of three glycaemic variables in current, ex- and never-smokers were modelled by linear regression, with study as a random factor. The I 2 statistic was used to evaluate heterogeneity among studies. Results: HbA1c was 0.10% (95% CI 0.08, 0.12) (1.1 mmol/mol [0.9, 1.3]) higher in current smokers and 0.03% (0.01, 0.05) (0.3 mmol/mol [0.1, 0.5]) higher in ex-smokers, compared with never-smokers. For FPG, there was no significant difference between current and never-smokers (-0.004 mmol/l [-0.03, 0.02]) but FPG was higher in ex-smokers (0.12 mmol/l [0.09, 0.14]). In comparison with never-smokers, 2H-PG was lower (-0.44 mmol/l [-0.52, -0.37]) in current smokers, with no difference for ex-smokers (0.02 mmol/l [-0.06, 0.09]). There was a large and unexplained heterogeneity among studies, with I 2 always above 50%; I 2 was little changed after stratification by sex and adjustment for age and BMI. In this study population, current smokers had a prevalence of diabetes that was 1.30% higher as screened by HbA1c and 0.52% lower as screened by 2H-PG, in comparison with never-smokers. Conclusion/interpretation: Across this heterogeneous group of studies, current smokers had a higher HbA1c and lower 2H-PG than never-smokers. This will affect the chances of smokers being diagnosed with diabetes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)30-39
Number of pages10
JournalDiabetologia
Volume57
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2014
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • 2H-PG
  • FPG
  • HbA
  • Meta-analysis
  • Smoking

Cite this