Has healthcare expenditure converged across Australian states and territories?

Kris Ivanovski, Sefa Awaworyi Churchill

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review


We employ the Phillips and Sul (Econometrica 75(6):1771–1855, 2007) methodology to test for the convergence of healthcare expenditure across Australian states and territories. We utilise a nonlinear model that allows for heterogeneity and transitional dynamics and consider the convergence patterns of total, government and non-government healthcare expenditures. The results display varying degrees of convergence, specifically in government and non-government expenditures. The formation of convergence and non-convergence clusters suggests that health policies need not be uniform across all Australian states and territories but within convergent clubs. As a result, healthcare policies need to be implemented at the state level rather than at the national level.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3401-3417
Number of pages17
JournalEmpirical Economics
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2021


  • Australia
  • Club clustering
  • Club convergence
  • Convergence
  • Health policy
  • Healthcare expenditure

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