Harnessing the potentialities of probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, paraprobiotics, and postbiotics for shrimp farming

Joanna Xuan Hui Goh, Loh Teng Hern Tan, Jodi Woan Fei Law, Hooi Leng Ser, Kooi Yeong Khaw, Vengadesh Letchumanan, Learn Han Lee, Bey Hing Goh

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleResearchpeer-review

42 Citations (Scopus)


The shrimp farming industry is receiving increasing attention globally. However, extending the frontiers of the industry has been a challenge as high stocking density often increases susceptibility to diseases and compromises shrimp quality. There has been a huge adoption of bacterial-derived additives in recent decades, particularly in Asia. Accumulating evidence demonstrates the modulatory effect of these functional additives on the animal gut microbiota composition, thus making them potential alternatives to antibiotics in controlling infectious diseases, such as acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND). These functional additives could be introduced in various forms, such as probiotics, synbiotics, paraprobiotics, and postbiotics. This article aims to critically review previous studies that investigated the effects of these bacterial derivatives, particularly on shrimp species. The surge of research in recent years indirectly attested to the immense potentialities of these functional additives. Generally, the introduction of bacterial derivatives not only helped in disease control but also demonstrated encouraging outcomes, including better survival rate, immune enhancement, and growth promotion effects. It is interesting to note that the effectiveness of probiotics extended beyond the viability of the bacteria, thus leading to concepts such as paraprobiotics and postbiotics. Although this is a relatively new research area with limited information, this review aims to consolidate available data and provide a comprehensive overview of the state of the art of this research arena. The challenges in each research domain were also discussed towards the end of this review to provide insights into potential future research niches.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1478-1557
Number of pages80
JournalReviews in Aquaculture
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2022


  • additives
  • aquaculture
  • disease
  • functional feed
  • growth
  • immune

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