Harnessing Brightness in Naphthalene Diimides

Subashani Maniam, Heather F. Higginbotham, Toby D. M. Bell, Steven J. Langford

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleResearchpeer-review

53 Citations (Scopus)


The development of brightly emissive compounds is of great research and commercial interest, with established and emerging applications across chemistry, biology, physics, medicine and engineering. Among the many types of molecules available, naphthalene diimides have been widely used for both fundamental photophysical studies and in practical applications that utilise fluorescence as an information readout. The monomeric naphthalene diimide is weakly fluorescent, however through various methods of core-derivatisation, it can be developed to be highly fluorescent and further functionalised to add utility. In this review, we highlight recent advances made in naphthalene diimide chemistry that have led to development of molecules with improved optical properties, and the design strategies utilised to produce bright fluorescence emission as small molecules or in supramolecular architectures.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7044-7057
Number of pages14
JournalChemistry - A European Journal
Issue number29
Publication statusPublished - 23 May 2019


  • absorption coefficient
  • fluorescence
  • molecular brightness
  • naphthalene diimides
  • quantum yield

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