Harmonization of pipeline for detection of HFOs in a rat model of post-traumatic epilepsy in preclinical multicenter study on post-traumatic epileptogenesis

Cesar Santana-Gomez, Pedro Andrade, Matthew R. Hudson, Tomi Paananen, Robert Ciszek, Gregory Smith, Idrish Ali, Brian K. Rundle, Xavier Ekolle Ndode-Ekane, Pablo M. Casillas-Espinosa, Riikka Immonen, Noora Puhakka, Nigel Jones, Rhys D. Brady, Piero Perucca, Sandy R. Shultz, Asla Pitkänen, Terence J. O'Brien, Richard Staba

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Studies of chronic epilepsy show pathological high frequency oscillations (HFOs) are associated with brain areas capable of generating epileptic seizures. Only a few of these studies have focused on HFOs during the development of epilepsy, but results suggest pathological HFOs could be a biomarker of epileptogenesis. The Epilepsy Bioinformatics Study for Antiepileptogenic Therapy” (EpiBioS4Rx) is a multi-center project designed to identify biomarkers of epileptogenesis after a traumatic brain injury (TBI) and evaluate treatments that could modify or prevent the development of post-traumatic epilepsy. One goal of the EpiBioS4Rx project is to assess whether HFOs could be a biomarker of post-traumatic epileptogenesis. The current study describes the work towards this goal, including the development of common surgical procedures and EEG protocols, an interim analysis of the EEG for HFOs, and identifying issues that need to be addressed for a robust biomarker analysis. At three participating sites – University of Eastern Finland (UEF), Monash University in Melbourne (Melbourne) and University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) – TBI was induced in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats by lateral fluid-percussion injury. After injury and in sham-operated controls, rats were implanted with screw and microwire electrodes positioned in neocortex and hippocampus to record EEG. A separate group of rats had serial magnetic resonance imaging after injury and then implanted with electrodes at 6 months. Recordings 28 days post-injury were available from UEF and UCLA, but not Melbourne due to technical issues with their EEG files. Analysis of recordings from 4 rats – UEF and UCLA each had one TBI and one sham-operated control – showed EEG contained evidence of HFOs. Computer-automated algorithms detected a total of 1,819 putative HFOs and of these only 40 events (2%) were detected by all three sites. Manual review of all events verified 130 events as HFO and the remainder as false positives. Review of the 40 events detected by all three sites was associated with 88% agreement. This initial report from the EpiBioS4Rx Consortium demonstrates the standardization of EEG electrode placements, recording protocol and long-term EEG monitoring, and differences in detection algorithm HFO results between sites. Additional work on detection strategy, detection algorithm performance, and training in HFO review will be performed to establish a robust, preclinical evaluation of HFOs as a biomarker of post-traumatic epileptogenesis.

Original languageEnglish
Article number106110
Number of pages8
JournalEpilepsy Research
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2019


  • Brain oscillation
  • Common data element
  • Electroencephalogram
  • Traumatic brain injury

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