The explosive increase of multimedia data (i.e., text, image, and video) on the Internet has brought the great challenge of how to effectively index, retrieve and organize these resources. Much research attention has been paid to understand and analyze the content in multimedia data. One can only think to the amount of image/video data downloaded every minute in social media or to the number of surveillance cameras installed in our cities nowadays. Both scenarios require the researchers to develop automatic or semi-automatic approaches which are able to mine discriminate information from a large quantity of raw data. This special issue aims to collect recent state-of-the-art achievement on image/video understanding and analysis, especially the work devoted to several new challenges in the field. This special issue mainly focuses on image/video understanding and analysis (IVUA). We solicited original contributions, of leading researchers and practitioners from academia as well as industry, which address a wide range of theoretical and application issues in image and video understanding and analysis.