Gravitational Waves and Gamma-Rays from a Binary Neutron Star Merger: GW170817 and GRB 170817A

K Ackley, S Biscoveanu, P Lasky, Y Levin, L McNeill, L Sammut, R J E Smith, C Talbot, E Thrane, C Whittle, LIGO Scientific Collaboration and Virgo Collaboration, Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor, INTEGRAL

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

On 2017 August 17, the gravitational-wave event GW170817 was observed by the Advanced LIGO and Virgo detectors, and the gamma-ray burst (GRB) GRB 170817A was observed independently by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor, and the Anti-Coincidence Shield for the Spectrometer for the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory. The probability of the near-simultaneous temporal and spatial observation of GRB 170817A and GW170817 occurring by chance is 5.0 × 10-8. We therefore confirm binary neutron star mergers as a progenitor of short GRBs. The association of GW170817 and GRB 170817A provides new insight into fundamental physics and the origin of short GRBs. We use the observed time delay of (+1.74±0.05)between GRB 170817A and GW170817 to: (i) constrain the difference between the speed of gravity and the speed of light to be between -3 × 10-15and +7 × 10-16times the speed of light, (ii) place new bounds on the violation of Lorentz invariance, (iii) present a new test of the equivalence principle by constraining the Shapiro delay between gravitational and electromagnetic radiation. We also use the time delay to constrain the size and bulk Lorentz factor of the region emitting the gamma-rays. GRB 170817A is the closest short GRB with a known distance, but is between 2 and 6 orders of magnitude less energetic than other bursts with measured redshift. A new generation of gamma-ray detectors, and subthreshold searches in existing detectors, will be essential to detect similar short bursts at greater distances. Finally, we predict a joint detection rate for the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor and the Advanced LIGO and Virgo detectors of 0.1-1.4 per year during the 2018-2019 observing run and 0.3-1.7 per year at design sensitivity.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberL13
Number of pages27
JournalAstrophysical Journal Letters
Volume848
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 20 Oct 2017

Keywords

  • binaries: close
  • gamma-ray burst: general
  • gravitational waves

Cite this

Ackley, K ; Biscoveanu, S ; Lasky, P ; Levin, Y ; McNeill, L ; Sammut, L ; Smith, R J E ; Talbot, C ; Thrane, E ; Whittle, C ; LIGO Scientific Collaboration and Virgo Collaboration ; Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor ; INTEGRAL. / Gravitational Waves and Gamma-Rays from a Binary Neutron Star Merger : GW170817 and GRB 170817A. In: Astrophysical Journal Letters. 2017 ; Vol. 848, No. 2.
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title = "Gravitational Waves and Gamma-Rays from a Binary Neutron Star Merger: GW170817 and GRB 170817A",
abstract = "On 2017 August 17, the gravitational-wave event GW170817 was observed by the Advanced LIGO and Virgo detectors, and the gamma-ray burst (GRB) GRB 170817A was observed independently by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor, and the Anti-Coincidence Shield for the Spectrometer for the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory. The probability of the near-simultaneous temporal and spatial observation of GRB 170817A and GW170817 occurring by chance is 5.0 × 10-8. We therefore confirm binary neutron star mergers as a progenitor of short GRBs. The association of GW170817 and GRB 170817A provides new insight into fundamental physics and the origin of short GRBs. We use the observed time delay of (+1.74±0.05)between GRB 170817A and GW170817 to: (i) constrain the difference between the speed of gravity and the speed of light to be between -3 × 10-15and +7 × 10-16times the speed of light, (ii) place new bounds on the violation of Lorentz invariance, (iii) present a new test of the equivalence principle by constraining the Shapiro delay between gravitational and electromagnetic radiation. We also use the time delay to constrain the size and bulk Lorentz factor of the region emitting the gamma-rays. GRB 170817A is the closest short GRB with a known distance, but is between 2 and 6 orders of magnitude less energetic than other bursts with measured redshift. A new generation of gamma-ray detectors, and subthreshold searches in existing detectors, will be essential to detect similar short bursts at greater distances. Finally, we predict a joint detection rate for the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor and the Advanced LIGO and Virgo detectors of 0.1-1.4 per year during the 2018-2019 observing run and 0.3-1.7 per year at design sensitivity.",
keywords = "binaries: close, gamma-ray burst: general, gravitational waves",
author = "K Ackley and S Biscoveanu and P Lasky and Y Levin and L McNeill and L Sammut and Smith, {R J E} and C Talbot and E Thrane and C Whittle and Zhu, {X J} and {LIGO Scientific Collaboration and Virgo Collaboration} and {Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor} and INTEGRAL",
year = "2017",
month = "10",
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Ackley, K, Biscoveanu, S, Lasky, P, Levin, Y, McNeill, L, Sammut, L, Smith, RJE, Talbot, C, Thrane, E, Whittle, C, LIGO Scientific Collaboration and Virgo Collaboration, Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor & INTEGRAL 2017, 'Gravitational Waves and Gamma-Rays from a Binary Neutron Star Merger: GW170817 and GRB 170817A' Astrophysical Journal Letters, vol. 848, no. 2, L13. https://doi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/aa920c

Gravitational Waves and Gamma-Rays from a Binary Neutron Star Merger : GW170817 and GRB 170817A. / Ackley, K; Biscoveanu, S; Lasky, P; Levin, Y; McNeill, L; Sammut, L; Smith, R J E; Talbot, C; Thrane, E; Whittle, C; LIGO Scientific Collaboration and Virgo Collaboration; Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor; INTEGRAL.

In: Astrophysical Journal Letters, Vol. 848, No. 2, L13, 20.10.2017.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Gravitational Waves and Gamma-Rays from a Binary Neutron Star Merger

T2 - GW170817 and GRB 170817A

AU - Ackley, K

AU - Biscoveanu, S

AU - Lasky, P

AU - Levin, Y

AU - McNeill, L

AU - Sammut, L

AU - Smith, R J E

AU - Talbot, C

AU - Thrane, E

AU - Whittle, C

AU - Zhu, X J

AU - LIGO Scientific Collaboration and Virgo Collaboration

AU - Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor

AU - INTEGRAL

PY - 2017/10/20

Y1 - 2017/10/20

N2 - On 2017 August 17, the gravitational-wave event GW170817 was observed by the Advanced LIGO and Virgo detectors, and the gamma-ray burst (GRB) GRB 170817A was observed independently by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor, and the Anti-Coincidence Shield for the Spectrometer for the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory. The probability of the near-simultaneous temporal and spatial observation of GRB 170817A and GW170817 occurring by chance is 5.0 × 10-8. We therefore confirm binary neutron star mergers as a progenitor of short GRBs. The association of GW170817 and GRB 170817A provides new insight into fundamental physics and the origin of short GRBs. We use the observed time delay of (+1.74±0.05)between GRB 170817A and GW170817 to: (i) constrain the difference between the speed of gravity and the speed of light to be between -3 × 10-15and +7 × 10-16times the speed of light, (ii) place new bounds on the violation of Lorentz invariance, (iii) present a new test of the equivalence principle by constraining the Shapiro delay between gravitational and electromagnetic radiation. We also use the time delay to constrain the size and bulk Lorentz factor of the region emitting the gamma-rays. GRB 170817A is the closest short GRB with a known distance, but is between 2 and 6 orders of magnitude less energetic than other bursts with measured redshift. A new generation of gamma-ray detectors, and subthreshold searches in existing detectors, will be essential to detect similar short bursts at greater distances. Finally, we predict a joint detection rate for the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor and the Advanced LIGO and Virgo detectors of 0.1-1.4 per year during the 2018-2019 observing run and 0.3-1.7 per year at design sensitivity.

AB - On 2017 August 17, the gravitational-wave event GW170817 was observed by the Advanced LIGO and Virgo detectors, and the gamma-ray burst (GRB) GRB 170817A was observed independently by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor, and the Anti-Coincidence Shield for the Spectrometer for the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory. The probability of the near-simultaneous temporal and spatial observation of GRB 170817A and GW170817 occurring by chance is 5.0 × 10-8. We therefore confirm binary neutron star mergers as a progenitor of short GRBs. The association of GW170817 and GRB 170817A provides new insight into fundamental physics and the origin of short GRBs. We use the observed time delay of (+1.74±0.05)between GRB 170817A and GW170817 to: (i) constrain the difference between the speed of gravity and the speed of light to be between -3 × 10-15and +7 × 10-16times the speed of light, (ii) place new bounds on the violation of Lorentz invariance, (iii) present a new test of the equivalence principle by constraining the Shapiro delay between gravitational and electromagnetic radiation. We also use the time delay to constrain the size and bulk Lorentz factor of the region emitting the gamma-rays. GRB 170817A is the closest short GRB with a known distance, but is between 2 and 6 orders of magnitude less energetic than other bursts with measured redshift. A new generation of gamma-ray detectors, and subthreshold searches in existing detectors, will be essential to detect similar short bursts at greater distances. Finally, we predict a joint detection rate for the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor and the Advanced LIGO and Virgo detectors of 0.1-1.4 per year during the 2018-2019 observing run and 0.3-1.7 per year at design sensitivity.

KW - binaries: close

KW - gamma-ray burst: general

KW - gravitational waves

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U2 - 10.3847/2041-8213/aa920c

DO - 10.3847/2041-8213/aa920c

M3 - Review Article

VL - 848

JO - The Astrophysical Journal Letters

JF - The Astrophysical Journal Letters

SN - 2041-8205

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M1 - L13

ER -