GoGP: scalable geometric-based Gaussian process for online regression

Trung Le, Khanh Nguyen, Vu Nguyen, Tu Dinh Nguyen, Dinh Phung

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review


One of the most challenging problems in Gaussian process regression is to cope with large-scale datasets and to tackle an online learning setting where data instances arrive irregularly and continuously. In this paper, we introduce a novel online Gaussian process model that scales efficiently with large-scale datasets. Our proposed GoGP is constructed based on the geometric and optimization views of the Gaussian process regression, hence termed geometric-based online GP (GoGP). We developed theory to guarantee that with a good convergence rate our proposed algorithm always offers a sparse solution, which can approximate the true optima up to any level of precision specified a priori. Moreover, to further speed up the GoGP accompanied with a positive semi-definite and shift-invariant kernel such as the well-known Gaussian kernel and also address the curse of kernelization problem, wherein the model size linearly rises with data size accumulated over time in the context of online learning, we proposed to approximate the original kernel using the Fourier random feature kernel. The model of GoGP with Fourier random feature (i.e., GoGP-RF) can be stored directly in a finite-dimensional random feature space, hence being able to avoid the curse of kernelization problem and scalable efficiently and effectively with large-scale datasets. We extensively evaluated our proposed methods against the state-of-the-art baselines on several large-scale datasets for online regression task. The experimental results show that our GoGP(s) delivered comparable, or slightly better, predictive performance while achieving a magnitude of computational speedup compared with its rivals under online setting. More importantly, its convergence behavior is guaranteed through our theoretical analysis, which is rapid and stable while achieving lower errors.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)197-226
Number of pages30
JournalKnowledge and Information Systems
Publication statusPublished - 20 Jul 2019


  • Gaussian process
  • Kernel methods
  • Online learning
  • Random feature
  • Regression

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