This review describes recent developments in the field of glycopolymer (polymer-carbohydrate conjugate) synthesis. The interest in this class of polymers that have a wide range of biological recognition properties has grown rapidly in the last decade due to their application in the areas of biotechnology and medicinal chemistry. Modern synthetic methodologies such as controlled radical polymerization, ionic polymerization, ring-opening polymerization (ROP), ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) and Click chemistry have recently been proven to be extremely efficient and versatile tools for building tailor-made functional polymers with different molecular architectures. The use of these synthetic methods to prepare glycopolymer conjugates is outlined and discussed in detail. The self-assembling behavior of these glycopolymer designs and their interactions with their corresponding lectins (cell surface receptor proteins) are also presented in this review.