Glycaemia and utilisation of technology across the lifespan of adults with type 1 diabetes: Results of the Australian National Diabetes Audit (ANDA)

Anthony Pease, Naomi Szwarcbard, Arul Earnest, Sofianos Andrikopoulos, Natalie Wischer, Sophia Zoungas

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Aims: To evaluate the utilisation of technologies and associated glycaemia among adults with type 1 diabetes. Methods: De-identified data from adults with type 1 diabetes (≥18 years old) in the Australian National Diabetes Audit (ANDA)–2019 were analysed. Proportions using insulin pumps or injections with continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) or capillary-glucose testing were compared. Technology use among adults was compared to young people (<21 years old) with subsidised CGM. Glycaemia and complication-burden were assessed across management strategies. Results: 1,693 adults were analysed. Mean(±SD) age, diabetes duration, and HbA1c were 43.3 ± 17.0 years, 20.3 ± 14.3 years and 8.4% ± 1.7 [68 ± 19 mmol/mol], respectively. Among adults, 40% used at least one device, 27% used insulin pumps, and 23% used CGM. CGM was used by 62% of young people with subsidised access. Mean HbA1c was consistently lower among adults using CGM, insulin pumps, or combined insulin pump and CGM compared to standard care (8.3% ± 1.6 [67 ± 18 mmol/mol], 8.2% ± 1.4 [66 ± 15 mmol/mol], and 7.8% ± 1.4 [62 ± 15 mmol/mol] respectively compared to 8.6% ± 1.8 [70 ± 20 mmol/mol], p < 0.001). Technology use was not associated with diabetic ketoacidosis but CGM was associated with more hypoglycaemia. Conclusions: Government subsidy is an important consideration for utilisation of technologies among adults with type 1 diabetes. Technology use across the adult lifespan was associated with lower HbA1c than insulin injections and capillary-glucose testing.

Original languageEnglish
Article number108609
Number of pages10
JournalDiabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2021


  • Continuous glucose monitor
  • Epidemiology
  • Insulin pump
  • Type 1 diabetes

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