Background: Despite cardiovascular diseases and thrombosis being major causes of death in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), there remains no effective biomarker to predict thrombotic risk in this population. Objective: To evaluate global coagulation assays in patients with CKD and correlate the biomarkers to clinical outcomes. Material and methods: Patients with eGFR<30 mL/min/1.73m2 were recruited (n = 90) in this prospective observational study. Blood samples were collected for global coagulation assays, including thromboelastography, calibrated automated thrombogram (CAT), overall hemostatic potential (OHP) and tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI). Results: Following adjustment for age and gender, CKD subjects (mean age 66 years, 36 % female) had increased maximum amplitude on thromboelastography (70.1 vs 60.2 mm, p < 0.001), higher peak thrombin (233.2 vs 219.7 mm, p = 0.030) and increased OHP (16.1 vs 6.4 units, p < 0.001) compared to healthy controls (n = 153). TFPI was also increased in CKD patients (36.4 vs 14.5 ng/mL, p < 0.001). Compared to hemodialysis patients (n = 43), peritoneal-dialysis patients (n = 25) had more hypercoagulable parameters. Thirty-five CKD patients reported thrombotic complications – key predictors included dialysis, higher fibrinogen, reduced endogenous thrombin potential, elevated D-dimer and increased TFPI. Using the dialysis cohort, the predictive risk model based on the key predictors performed better than Framingham heart score and number of cardiovascular risk factors (Harrell's C-stat 0.862 vs 0.585 vs 0.565). Conclusion: CKD appears to confer a hypercoagulable state compared to healthy controls. Interestingly, reduced thrombin generation and raised TFPI was paradoxically associated with increased thrombotic risks, highlighting possible complex compensatory mechanisms within the coagulation system, which may be important in predicting clinical outcomes.
- Cardiovascular diseases
- Chronic renal insufficiency