Geographical variance in the use of tranexamic acid for major trauma patients

Kieran Walsh, Francis O’Keeffe, Biswadev Mitra

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleResearchpeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


Background and Objectives: The CRASH-2 trial is the largest randomised control trial examining tranexamic acid (TXA) for injured patients. Since its publication, debate has arisen around whether results could be applied to mature trauma systems in developed nations, with global opinion divided. The aim of this study was to determine if, among trauma patients in or at significant risk of major haemorrhages, there is an association of geographic region with the proportion of patients that received tranexamic acid. Materials and Methods: We conducted a systematic review of the literature. Potentially eligible papers were first screened via title and abstract screening. A full copy of the remaining papers was then obtained and screened for final inclusion. The Newcastle–Ottawa Scale for non-randomised control trials was used for quality assessment of the final studies included. A meta-analysis was conducted using a random-effects model, reporting variation in use sub-grouped by geographical location. Results: There were 727 papers identified through database searching and 23 manuscripts met the criteria for final inclusion in this review. There was a statistically significant variation in the use of TXA for included patients. Europe and Oceania had higher usage rates of TXA compared to other continents. Use of TXA in Asia and Africa was significantly less than other continents and varied use was observed in North America. Conclusions: A large geographical variance in the use of TXA for trauma patients in or at significant risk of major haemorrhage currently exists. The populations in Asia and Africa, where the results of CRASH-2 could be most readily generalised to, reported low rates of use. The reason why remains unclear and further research is required to standardise the use of TXA for trauma resuscitation.

Original languageEnglish
Article number561
Number of pages19
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 2 Sept 2019


  • CRASH-2
  • Haemorrhage
  • Major trauma
  • Tranexamic acid
  • Trauma

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