Objectives: To determine the incidence, characteristics, and outcomes associated with geographical miss (GM) of plaque. Background: GM describes plaques that are incompletely covered following stenting, with GM thought to be associated with worse clinical outcomes. However, the incidence and characteristics of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)-defined GM plaques have never been studied and the relationship between GM with both short and long-term clinical events is unknown. Methods: One hundred and seventy patients with stable angina (n = 100) or myocardial infarction (MI) (n = 70) underwent virtual-histology IVUS (VH-IVUS) prior to, and following, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). GM was defined as three consecutive uncovered VH frames, either proximal or distal to the stented segment with plaque burden >40%. MACE was defined as a composite of death, myocardial infarction, unplanned revascularization, or hospitalization for angina. Results: In total, 245 plaques underwent PCI with 80 (32.7%) displaying evidence of GM (69 patients). GM was associated with increased plaque volume (p < 0.001), % necrotic core, and dense calcium (both p < 0.001) and VH-defined thin-cap fibroatheroma (VH-TCFA) (p = 0.01). GM was not associated with increased periprocedural MI (p = 0.15) or inflammatory cytokine release. At follow-up, 42 MACE occurred in 28 patients (median 1,115 days). MACE was attributable to 8/80 (10%) plaques with and 7/165 (4.2%) plaques without GM (log-rank p = 0.11). GM was associated with increased MACE in patients presenting with MI (p = 0.015), but not for those with stable angina (p = 0.94). Conclusions: GM is common after PCI and associated with more vulnerable plaque composition/subtype. GM may confer a worse prognosis in patients undergoing PCI for MI.
- coronary artery disease
- intravascular ultrasound
- percutaneous coronary intervention