Introduction: Genotype and metabolomic variation are important for bacterial survival and adaptation to environmental changes. Objectives: In this study, we compared the relationship among Klebsiella pneumoniae strains based on their genotypic and metabolic profiles. In addition, we also evaluated the association of the relationship with beta-lactamase production. Methods: A total of 53 K. pneumoniae strains isolated in 2013–2014 from a tertiary teaching hospital in Malaysia were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) via disk diffusion method and beta-lactamase production confirmation. The bacterial strains were also typed genotypically and metabolically via REP-PCR and 1H-NMR spectroscopy respectively. The concordance of the matrices derived based on genotypic and metabolic characterization was measured based on Spearman’s rank correlation. Results: Spearman’s correlation rank showed that there is a weak but significant negative correlation between the genetic fingerprints and metabolic profiles of K. pneumoniae. Specifically, K. pneumoniae strains were clustered into five major clusters based on REP-PCR where most of the carbapenem resistant K. pneumoniae (CRKP) strains made up the major cluster. In contrast, metabolic patterns of the three groups (i.e. CRKP, extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing K. pneumoniae (ESBL), susceptible) of K. pneumoniae were clearly differentiated on PLS-DA score plots derived from 1H-NMR spectroscopy. Conclusion: Overall, this study showed that metabolomic profiling using 1H-NMR spectroscopy is able to discriminate K. pneumoniae strains based on their beta-lactamase production status.
- Carbapenem resistant
- Extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)
- Metabolic profile
- Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)
- Repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (REP-PCR)