Objectives: The objective of this study was to locate the antibiotic resistance determinants in the multiply antibiotic-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolate D4. Methods: The genome was sequenced using Illumina HiSeq and assembled de novo using Velvet. PCR was used to link the relevant contigs and fill the gaps. Sequences were compared with ones in GenBank and annotated. Results: A sporadic A. baumannii isolate D4, recovered in Sydney in 2006 from a wound, was multiply antibiotic resistant. D4 is ST25 (Institut Pasteur scheme) and exhibited resistance to third-generation cephalosporins and reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, as well as resistance to aminoglycosides (gentamicin, kanamycin, neomycin and tobramycin) and further older antibiotics, nalidixic acid, sulfamethoxazole, streptomycin, spectinomycin and trimethoprim. The gyrA gene has a mutation consistent with nalidixic acid resistance. The blaPER conferring cephalosporin resistance, together with the aadB, aadA13/2, aadA2, strAB and sul1 resistance genes, are located within a 29173 bp complex class 1 integron that includes three copies of intI1, three cassette arrays and two copies of the 3'-conserved segment. This integron is adjacent to the resG gene of an integrative genomic resistance island, AGI1 (Acinetobacter genomic island 1), with a backbone related to that of islands in the SGI1, SGI2 and PGI1 families. AGI1 is located at the 3'-end of the chromosomal trmE (formerly thdF) gene. Conclusions: AGI1 represents a new lineage of genomic resistance islands that belongs in the same broad group as members of the SGI1, SGI2 and PGI1 families. Genes conferring resistance to cephalosporins, aminoglycosides and sulphonamides are located in a complex class 1 integron within AGI1.
- A. baumannii
- Acinetobacter genomic island 1
- Antibiotic resistance