Genomic evidence of neo-sex chromosomes in the eastern yellow robin

Han Ming Gan, Stephanie Falk, Hernán E. Morales, Christopher M. Austin, Paul Sunnucks, Alexandra Pavlova

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Understanding sex-biased natural selection can be enhanced by access to well-annotated chromosomes including ones inherited in sex-specific fashion. The eastern yellow robin (EYR) is an endemic Australian songbird inferred to have experienced climate-driven sex-biased selection and is a prominent model for studying mitochondrial-nuclear interactions in the wild. However, the lack of an EYR reference genome containing both sex chromosomes (in birds, a female bearing Z and W chromosomes) limits efforts to understand the mechanisms of these processes. Here, we assemble the genome for a female EYR and use low-depth (10×) genome resequencing data from 19 individuals of known sex to identify chromosome fragments with sex-specific inheritance. Findings: MaSuRCA hybrid assembly using Nanopore and Illumina reads generated a 1.22-Gb EYR genome in 20,702 scaffolds (94.2% BUSCO completeness). Scaffolds were tested for W-linked (female-only) inheritance using a k-mer approach, and for Z-linked inheritance using median read-depth test in male and female reads (read-depths must indicate haploid female and diploid male representation). This resulted in 2,372 W-linked scaffolds (total length: 97,872,282 bp, N50: 81,931 bp) and 586 Z-linked scaffolds (total length: 121,817,358 bp, N50: 551,641 bp). Anchoring of the sex-linked EYR scaffolds to the reference genome of a female zebra finch revealed 2 categories of sex-linked genomic regions. First, 653 W-linked scaffolds (25.7 Mb) were anchored to the W sex chromosome and 215 Z-linked scaffolds (74.4 Mb) to the Z. Second, 1,138 W-linked scaffolds (70.9 Mb) and 179 Z-linked scaffolds (51.0 Mb) were anchored to a large section (coordinates ∼5 to ∼60 Mb) of zebra finch chromosome 1A. The first ∼5 Mb and last ∼14 Mb of the reference chromosome 1A had only autosomally behaving EYR scaffolds mapping to them. Conclusions: We report a female (W chromosome-containing) EYR genome and provide genomic evidence for a neo-sex (neo-W and neo-Z) chromosome system in the EYR, involving most of a large chromosome (1A) previously only reported to be autosomal in passerines.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbergiz111
Number of pages10
JournalGigaScience
Volume8
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 18 Sep 2019

Keywords

  • eastern yellow robin
  • Eopsaltria australis
  • genome
  • neo-W
  • neo-Z
  • passerine
  • sex chromosome
  • songbird
  • W chromosome

Cite this

Gan, Han Ming ; Falk, Stephanie ; Morales, Hernán E. ; Austin, Christopher M. ; Sunnucks, Paul ; Pavlova, Alexandra. / Genomic evidence of neo-sex chromosomes in the eastern yellow robin. In: GigaScience. 2019 ; Vol. 8, No. 9.
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title = "Genomic evidence of neo-sex chromosomes in the eastern yellow robin",
abstract = "Background: Understanding sex-biased natural selection can be enhanced by access to well-annotated chromosomes including ones inherited in sex-specific fashion. The eastern yellow robin (EYR) is an endemic Australian songbird inferred to have experienced climate-driven sex-biased selection and is a prominent model for studying mitochondrial-nuclear interactions in the wild. However, the lack of an EYR reference genome containing both sex chromosomes (in birds, a female bearing Z and W chromosomes) limits efforts to understand the mechanisms of these processes. Here, we assemble the genome for a female EYR and use low-depth (10×) genome resequencing data from 19 individuals of known sex to identify chromosome fragments with sex-specific inheritance. Findings: MaSuRCA hybrid assembly using Nanopore and Illumina reads generated a 1.22-Gb EYR genome in 20,702 scaffolds (94.2{\%} BUSCO completeness). Scaffolds were tested for W-linked (female-only) inheritance using a k-mer approach, and for Z-linked inheritance using median read-depth test in male and female reads (read-depths must indicate haploid female and diploid male representation). This resulted in 2,372 W-linked scaffolds (total length: 97,872,282 bp, N50: 81,931 bp) and 586 Z-linked scaffolds (total length: 121,817,358 bp, N50: 551,641 bp). Anchoring of the sex-linked EYR scaffolds to the reference genome of a female zebra finch revealed 2 categories of sex-linked genomic regions. First, 653 W-linked scaffolds (25.7 Mb) were anchored to the W sex chromosome and 215 Z-linked scaffolds (74.4 Mb) to the Z. Second, 1,138 W-linked scaffolds (70.9 Mb) and 179 Z-linked scaffolds (51.0 Mb) were anchored to a large section (coordinates ∼5 to ∼60 Mb) of zebra finch chromosome 1A. The first ∼5 Mb and last ∼14 Mb of the reference chromosome 1A had only autosomally behaving EYR scaffolds mapping to them. Conclusions: We report a female (W chromosome-containing) EYR genome and provide genomic evidence for a neo-sex (neo-W and neo-Z) chromosome system in the EYR, involving most of a large chromosome (1A) previously only reported to be autosomal in passerines.",
keywords = "eastern yellow robin, Eopsaltria australis, genome, neo-W, neo-Z, passerine, sex chromosome, songbird, W chromosome",
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Genomic evidence of neo-sex chromosomes in the eastern yellow robin. / Gan, Han Ming; Falk, Stephanie; Morales, Hernán E.; Austin, Christopher M.; Sunnucks, Paul; Pavlova, Alexandra.

In: GigaScience, Vol. 8, No. 9, giz111, 18.09.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Genomic evidence of neo-sex chromosomes in the eastern yellow robin

AU - Gan, Han Ming

AU - Falk, Stephanie

AU - Morales, Hernán E.

AU - Austin, Christopher M.

AU - Sunnucks, Paul

AU - Pavlova, Alexandra

PY - 2019/9/18

Y1 - 2019/9/18

N2 - Background: Understanding sex-biased natural selection can be enhanced by access to well-annotated chromosomes including ones inherited in sex-specific fashion. The eastern yellow robin (EYR) is an endemic Australian songbird inferred to have experienced climate-driven sex-biased selection and is a prominent model for studying mitochondrial-nuclear interactions in the wild. However, the lack of an EYR reference genome containing both sex chromosomes (in birds, a female bearing Z and W chromosomes) limits efforts to understand the mechanisms of these processes. Here, we assemble the genome for a female EYR and use low-depth (10×) genome resequencing data from 19 individuals of known sex to identify chromosome fragments with sex-specific inheritance. Findings: MaSuRCA hybrid assembly using Nanopore and Illumina reads generated a 1.22-Gb EYR genome in 20,702 scaffolds (94.2% BUSCO completeness). Scaffolds were tested for W-linked (female-only) inheritance using a k-mer approach, and for Z-linked inheritance using median read-depth test in male and female reads (read-depths must indicate haploid female and diploid male representation). This resulted in 2,372 W-linked scaffolds (total length: 97,872,282 bp, N50: 81,931 bp) and 586 Z-linked scaffolds (total length: 121,817,358 bp, N50: 551,641 bp). Anchoring of the sex-linked EYR scaffolds to the reference genome of a female zebra finch revealed 2 categories of sex-linked genomic regions. First, 653 W-linked scaffolds (25.7 Mb) were anchored to the W sex chromosome and 215 Z-linked scaffolds (74.4 Mb) to the Z. Second, 1,138 W-linked scaffolds (70.9 Mb) and 179 Z-linked scaffolds (51.0 Mb) were anchored to a large section (coordinates ∼5 to ∼60 Mb) of zebra finch chromosome 1A. The first ∼5 Mb and last ∼14 Mb of the reference chromosome 1A had only autosomally behaving EYR scaffolds mapping to them. Conclusions: We report a female (W chromosome-containing) EYR genome and provide genomic evidence for a neo-sex (neo-W and neo-Z) chromosome system in the EYR, involving most of a large chromosome (1A) previously only reported to be autosomal in passerines.

AB - Background: Understanding sex-biased natural selection can be enhanced by access to well-annotated chromosomes including ones inherited in sex-specific fashion. The eastern yellow robin (EYR) is an endemic Australian songbird inferred to have experienced climate-driven sex-biased selection and is a prominent model for studying mitochondrial-nuclear interactions in the wild. However, the lack of an EYR reference genome containing both sex chromosomes (in birds, a female bearing Z and W chromosomes) limits efforts to understand the mechanisms of these processes. Here, we assemble the genome for a female EYR and use low-depth (10×) genome resequencing data from 19 individuals of known sex to identify chromosome fragments with sex-specific inheritance. Findings: MaSuRCA hybrid assembly using Nanopore and Illumina reads generated a 1.22-Gb EYR genome in 20,702 scaffolds (94.2% BUSCO completeness). Scaffolds were tested for W-linked (female-only) inheritance using a k-mer approach, and for Z-linked inheritance using median read-depth test in male and female reads (read-depths must indicate haploid female and diploid male representation). This resulted in 2,372 W-linked scaffolds (total length: 97,872,282 bp, N50: 81,931 bp) and 586 Z-linked scaffolds (total length: 121,817,358 bp, N50: 551,641 bp). Anchoring of the sex-linked EYR scaffolds to the reference genome of a female zebra finch revealed 2 categories of sex-linked genomic regions. First, 653 W-linked scaffolds (25.7 Mb) were anchored to the W sex chromosome and 215 Z-linked scaffolds (74.4 Mb) to the Z. Second, 1,138 W-linked scaffolds (70.9 Mb) and 179 Z-linked scaffolds (51.0 Mb) were anchored to a large section (coordinates ∼5 to ∼60 Mb) of zebra finch chromosome 1A. The first ∼5 Mb and last ∼14 Mb of the reference chromosome 1A had only autosomally behaving EYR scaffolds mapping to them. Conclusions: We report a female (W chromosome-containing) EYR genome and provide genomic evidence for a neo-sex (neo-W and neo-Z) chromosome system in the EYR, involving most of a large chromosome (1A) previously only reported to be autosomal in passerines.

KW - eastern yellow robin

KW - Eopsaltria australis

KW - genome

KW - neo-W

KW - neo-Z

KW - passerine

KW - sex chromosome

KW - songbird

KW - W chromosome

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U2 - 10.1093/gigascience/giz111

DO - 10.1093/gigascience/giz111

M3 - Article

C2 - 31494668

AN - SCOPUS:85071896492

VL - 8

JO - GigaScience

JF - GigaScience

SN - 2047-217X

IS - 9

M1 - giz111

ER -