Molecular markers were used to analyze the genomic structure of an euploid series of Eragrostis curvula, obtained after a tetraploid dihaploidization procedure followed by chromosome re-doubling with colchicine. Considerable levels of genome polymorphisms were detected between lines. Curiously, a significant number of molecular markers showed a revertant behavior following the successive changes of ploidy, suggesting that genome alterations were specific and conferred genetic structures characteristic of a given ploidy level. Genuine reversion was confirmed by sequencing. Cluster analysis demonstrated grouping of tetraploids while the diploid was more distantly related with respect to the rest of the plants. Polymorphic revertant sequences involved mostly non-coding regions, although some of them displayed sequence homology to known genes. A revertant sequence corresponding to a P-type adenosine triphosphatase was found to be differentially represented in cDNA libraries obtained from the diploid and a colchiploid, but was not found expressed in the original tetraploid. Transcriptome profiling of inflorescence followed by real-time polymerase chain reaction validation showed 0.34 polymorphic bands between apomictic tetraploid and sexual diploid plants. Several of the polymorphic sequences corresponded to known genes. Possible correlation between the results observed here and a recently reported genome-wide non-Mendelian inheritance mechanism in Arabidopsis thaliana are discussed.