Genome and plasmid context of two rmtG-carrying Enterobacter hormaechei isolated from urinary tract infections in Brazil

Evelin Rodrigues Martins, Maria Fernanda Campagnari Bueno, Gabriela Rodrigues Francisco, Tiago Casella, Doroti de Oliveira Garcia, Louise Teixeira Cerdeira, Alexandra Lehmkuhl Gerber, Luiz Gonzaga Paula de Almeida, Nilton Lincopan, Ana Tereza Ribeiro de Vasconcelos, Mara Corrêa Lelles Nogueira, Cassia Fernanda Estofolete

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10 Citations (Scopus)


Objectives: Enterobacter hormaechei is an important causative agent of severe infections in critically ill patients. Aminoglycosides are among the main antibiotics for the treatment of E. hormaechei infections, however the development of antimicrobial resistance is an increasing problem. RmtG is a 16S rRNA methyltransferase, a class of enzymes conferring high-level resistance to clinically relevant aminoglycosides. The aim of this study was to characterise the full genetic context of plasmids harbouring the rmtG gene in two aminoglycoside-resistant E. hormaechei isolated in Brazil. Methods: ThermtG-harbouring plasmids were transferred to an Escherichia coli J53 recipient strain and were fully sequenced using a MiSeq sequencing system. Complete genome assemblies were accomplished using a combination of Newbler v.3.0, SPAdes 3.10.0 and phrap/cross_match programs. Plasmid sequences were annotated using RAST server and were then manually curated using BLAST databases and ISfinder. Easyfig 2.0 was used to map and compare regions of interest containing rmtG in both plasmids. Results: Both isolates carried thermtG gene on an IncA/C plasmid of ˜152 kb and ˜235 kb, respectively, associated with a Tn3 transposon. The plasmids contain a transfer region as well as genes involved in plasmid stability and resistance to β-lactams, sulfonamides and quaternary ammonium compounds. One of the plasmids also carried the mrk operon encoding type 3 fimbriae. Conclusion: This first detection ofrmtG in E. hormaechei supports the ability for horizontal transfer. The location in complex genetic platforms carried by Tn3 transposons in IncA/C plasmids may facilitate dissemination to other Gram-negative pathogens, further limiting treatment options.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)36-40
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • 16S rRNA methyltransferase
  • Aminoglycoside resistance
  • Enterobacter hormaechei
  • rmtG

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