Genetic interaction of Gsc and Dkk1 in head morphogenesis of the mouse

Samara L. Lewis, Poh Lynn Khoo, R. Andrea De Young, Heidi Bildsoe, Maki Wakamiya, Richard R. Behringer, Mahua Mukhopadhyay, Heiner Westphal, Patrick P.L. Tam

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

24 Citations (Scopus)


Mouse embryos lacking Gsc and Dkk1 function display severe deficiencies in craniofacial structures which are not found in either Dkk1 homozygous null or Gsc homozygous null mutant embryos. Loss of Gsc has a dosage-related effect on the severity of head truncation phenotype in Dkk1 heterozygous embryos. The synergistic effect of these mutations in enhancing head truncation provides direct evidence of a genetic interaction between Gsc and Dkk1, which display overlapping expression in the prechordal mesoderm. In the absence of Gsc activity, the expression of Dkk1, WNT genes and a transgenic reporter for WNT signalling are altered. Our results show that Gsc and Dkk1 functions are non-redundant in the anterior mesendoderm for normal anterior development and Gsc may influence Wnt signalling as a negative regulator.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)157-165
Number of pages9
JournalMechanisms of Development
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2007
Externally publishedYes


  • Anterior mesendoderm
  • Dkk1
  • Gsc
  • Mouse embryo
  • Tissue patterning
  • WNT signalling

Cite this