Chemically detoxified bacterial toxins (toxoids) have been successfully used as vaccines for the prevention of many bacterial infectious diseases. Today, nontoxic derivatives of bacterial toxins can be obtained by mutagenesis of the toxin genes. These genetically inactivated toxins are superior to the classical toxoids both in safety and in immunogenicity and therefore they should replace the old toxoids in the existing vaccines. In addition, they represent a novel class of inimunogens with unique properties, some of which may be used for innovative approaches to vaccination.
- Antigen presentation
- Escherichia coli enterotoxiti
- Mucosal immunity