The prevalence of the chronic metabolic disorder, diabetes mellitus, is expected to increase in the coming years and worldwide pandemic levels are predicted. Inevitably, this will be accompanied by an increase in the prevalence of diabetic complications, including diabetic foot ulcers. At present, treatment options for diabetic foot ulcers are in many cases insufficient, and progression of the condition results in the requirement for limb amputation in a proportion of patients. To improve therapy, an increase in our understanding of the pathobiology of diabetic complications such as impaired wound healing is necessary. In this review, recent advances in molecular aspects of normal and impaired diabetic wound healing are discussed. Furthermore, investigations of the role of epigenetic processes in the pathogenesis of impaired diabetic wound healing are now emerging. Indeed, epigenetic changes have already been identified as key factors in diabetes and related complications and these are overviewed in this review.