Generic carbon cascade analysis technique for carbon emission management

Zainuddin Abdul Manan, Sharifah R. Wan Alwi, Muhammad M. Sadiq, Petar Varbanov

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19 Citations (Scopus)


This work introduces the new Generic Carbon Cascade Analysis (GCCA) algebraic approach that enables the minimum carbon targets to be determined for any range of CO2 concentration. The GCCA technique has been developed to complement the generic graphical Source and Demand Curves (SDC) in terms of the efficiency, accuracy and the ability to handle cases involving a large number of stationary emission sources. The GCCA technique is used with the Carbon Management Hierarchy (CMH) to systematically achieve the holistic minimum carbon targets through the application of all carbon minimisation options including direct reuse, source and demand manipulations, regeneration reuse, and carbon sequestration. Application of the GCCA tool on a refinery site can potentially result in the minimum fresh carbon target of 23.82 t/h, and zero carbon emission. This is a significant reduction from the base case fresh carbon demand of 289.30 t/h and carbon emission of 279.79 t/h.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1141-1147
Number of pages7
JournalApplied Thermal Engineering
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 22 Sept 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • Carbon management hierarchy
  • Generic Carbon Cascade Analysis
  • Maximum carbon exchange
  • Minimum carbon targets
  • Pinch analysis
  • Process integration

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