Gendered vulnerabilities of smallholder farmers to climate change in conflict-prone areas: a case study from Mindanao, Philippines

Alvin Chandra, Karen E. McNamara, Paul Dargusch, Ana Maria Caspe, Dante Dalabajan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

59 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Smallholder farmers in the Philippines are typically considered to be particularly vulnerable to climate change, yet, relatively little is known about how that vulnerability differs between men and women farmers, particularly in conflict-prone areas. Using the region of Mindanao in Philippines as a case study, this paper presents an analysis of focus groups (n = 14) and interviews (n = 77) to showcase gendered vulnerabilities of smallholder farmers to climate change. This analysis reveals that both climate change and conflict significantly increase smallholder vulnerability, resulting in loss of livelihoods, financial assets, agricultural yield and the worsening of debt problems. Women and men are affected differently, resulting in changing farming patterns and coping strategies. Women are more disadvantaged and as such tend to farm in smaller plots, work shorter hours or limit farming to cash crops. Extreme climate events in conflict-prone agrarian communities appear to subject women to forced migration, increased discrimination, loss of customary rights to land, resource poverty and food insecurity. The paper concludes by recommending implementing climate-smart agriculture solutions that are both gender and conflict sensitive.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)45-59
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Rural Studies
Volume50
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2017
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Agriculture
  • Climate change
  • Gender
  • Loss and damage
  • Mindanao
  • Smallholder

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