Gender and ethnicity differences in the prevalence of traumatic events: Evidence from a New Zealand community sample

Ross A. Flett, Nikolaos Kazantzis, Nigel R. Long, Carol MacDonald, Michelle Millar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

22 Citations (Scopus)


One thousand five hundred community residing New Zealand adults were assessed regarding their experience of traumatic events. Sixty-one per cent of those surveyed reported exposure to a traumatic event during their lifetime. Unexpected death of a close friend or relative was the most prevalent traumatic experience for the present sample, whereas combat and natural disasters were the least prevalent traumatic events. Consistent with prior research demonstrating gender differences in exposure to traumatic events, child and adult sexual assault was more common among women, and motor vehicle accidents and combat were more common among men. The present study also found that Maori individuals (indigenous people) had experienced a number of traumatic events to a greater extent than their European counterparts. These results are discussed within the New Zealand social context.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)149-157
Number of pages9
JournalStress & Health
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2004
Externally publishedYes


  • New Zealand
  • Prevalence
  • Trauma

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