Gauging Incentive Values and Expectations (G.I.V.E.) among Blood Donors for Nonmonetary Incentives: developing a preference elicitation instrument through qualitative approaches in Shandong, China

Yu Wang, Peicong Zhai, Yue Zhang, Shan Jiang, Gang Chen, Shunping Li

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review


Introduction: Blood donation rates remain suboptimal in China necessitating the reform of the current nonmonetary incentive system to motivate donors. This study aims to identify relevant attributes and levels for nonmonetary incentives in repeated blood donation and provide insights for the development of preference elicitation instruments. Methods: A qualitative research process was employed, including a literature review, in-depth interviews, attribute ranking, focus group discussions, and cognitive interviews, to identify potential nonmonetary incentives for blood donation. The identified attributes were then incorporated into a discrete choice experiment (DCE) study design. The comprehensibility and acceptability of the DCE questionnaire were assessed through cognitive interviews and a pilot study. Results: Five nonmonetary incentive attributes were identified, including health examination, designated blood recipient, honor for donation, travel time, and gifts. The designated recipient of blood donation emerged as the most important motivator for future donations among the participants. The cognitive interviews and pilot study provided valuable feedback for refining the DCE questionnaire and ensuring its reliability. Conclusion: This study contributes to the understanding of nonmonetary incentives for blood donation and highlights the importance of designated blood recipients, health examination, honor for donation, travel time, and gifts as potential motivators. Moreover, it emphasizes the value of employing cognitive interviews and pilot studies in the development and refinement of DCE questionnaires, ultimately enhancing the reliability and validity of preference elicitation instruments.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)593-606
Number of pages14
JournalThe Patient - Patient-Centered Outcomes Research
Publication statusPublished - 2023

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