Pulverized fuel (pf) combustion in a boiler for power generation is by far the most common approach for the utilization of low rank coals. The properties of low rank coals (in particular, moisture and alkali content) mean that such an approach is often very inefficient, leading to very high CO2 emissions. Low rank coals, however, are inexpensive, and in some regions represent a significant energy resource. This chapter discusses some of the advanced, high efficiency technologies that are being demonstrated or which are under development, which allow low rank coals to play a role in a low-carbon energy future. The chapter discusses the role of gasification in enabling low rank coals to be used for low emissions power or the production of chemicals, fertilizers, or hydrogen. It also gives an overview of emerging technologies, such as Direct Injection Carbon Engines, and those under development, such as Direct Carbon Fuel Cells.